const is a new keyword which declares a variable as constant over time.

Declaring a const variable

We can use const to declare a variable but unlike let and var it must be immediately initialised, with a value that can’t be changed afterwards.

If we try to declare it without initialising it we get a SyntaxError, like so:

const foo; // SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

If we try to change it after we have declared and initialised it we get a TypeError, like so:

const foo = 1;
foo = 2; // TypeError: Assignment to constant variable

Block scoping

Both let and const create variables that are block-scoped – they only exist within the innermost block that surrounds them.

function func() {
    if (true) {
        const tmp = 123;
    console.log(tmp); // Uncaught ReferenceError: tmp is not defined

Immutable variable

Variables created by let and var are mutable:

let foo = "foo";
foo = "moo";


Mutable in this case means can change over time.

Variables created by const however are immutable, they don’t change over time, specifically the the const variable can’t point to another thing later on.

const foo = 'abc';
foo = 'def'; // TypeError: `foo` is read-only

Mutable Value

There is one big pitfall with const however.

When we say "`const` variables are immutable" it only means that the variable always has to point to the same thing. It does not mean than the thing it points to can’t change over time.

For example, if the variable foo is a const that points to an object - we can’t make foo point to another object later on:

const foo = {};
foo = {}; // TypeError: `foo` is read-only

But we can however mutate, make changes to, the object foo points to, like so:

const foo = {};
foo['prop'] = "Moo"; // This works!

If we want the value of foo to be immutable we have to freeze it using Object.freeze(…​).

When we freeze an object we can’t change it, we can’t add properties or change the values of properties, like so:

const foo = Object.freeze({});
foo.prop = 123;
console.log(foo.prop) // undefined

However by default the above doesn’t throw an error, it just silently ignores the issue. So in the example above it didn’t throw an error when we tried to set foo.prop = 123 but when we try to print out the value on the next line we just get undefined.

To force Object.freeze(…​) to throw an error we must remember to be in "use strict" mode, like so:

"use strict";
const foo = Object.freeze({});
foo.prop = 123; // SyntaxError: Identifier 'foo' has already been declared


const lets us declare variables which don’t change over time, which are immutable.

The important gotcha with const is that the variable is immutable, but not the value, the thing the variable points to.

This means that if we declare an object as const, confusingly we can still change properties of the object later on.

To solve this and make an object immutable we use the Object.freeze(…​) function which together with the "use strict"; param throws an error if we try to change the object.

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